33 major artistic movements and their influence on the world today

Art has evolved since the origin of mankind. Artists are constantly coming up with new artistic styles. An art movement is a trend or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal followed by a group of artists over a period of time (usually months, years or decades). Artistic movements were particularly important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered a new avant-garde style such as the recent Pencil Vs Camera concept. There is no rule when grouping artistic movements.

This article discusses the main Western art movements, art styles and artistic concepts and their influence on the world today. The images below are taken from Wikipedia and belong to their respective owners.

1. Art Préhistorique (- 40,000 av. JC. – 4,000 av. JC.)


The origins of art history date back tens of thousands of years to prehistoric times, long before any written records were kept. The earliest artifacts come from the Paleolithic era, or the Stone Age, in the form of rock carvings, engravings, pictorial images, carvings, and stone arrangements. The art of this period relied on the use of natural pigments and stone carvings to create depictions of objects, animals, and rituals that governed the existence of a civilization. One of the most famous examples is the Paleolithic cave paintings found in the complex caves of Lascaux in France which are 20,000 years old.

2. Art Antique (- 4000 av. JC. – 400 ap. JC.)


Ancient art was produced by advanced civilizations, which in this case refers to those with an established written language. These civilizations included Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and those of the Americas.

Most artwork from this period serves similar purposes: telling stories, decorating utilitarian objects like bowls and weapons, displaying religious and symbolic imagery, and demonstrating social status. Many works depict stories of rulers, gods and goddesses.

Artists of the caliber of Picasso, Giacometti, Modigliani, Rodin or Matisse, who completely revolutionized the artistic panorama of their time, were deeply inspired by ancient art. Picasso had studied ancient Greek and Roman art during his visits to the Louvre during his student years. Visual references to antiquity begin to appear in his works from 1917, also known as Picasso’s “classical period”. Sculptural nudes, classical compositions, but also an interest in subjects drawn from mythology prevail in Picasso’s works of this period. The Parthenon sculptures also had a profound effect on August Rodin when he first saw them in the British Museum.

3. Medieval Art (500-1400)


The Middle Ages, often referred to as the “Dark Ages”, marked a period of economic and cultural deterioration after the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD.

It covers a vast expanse of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times in West Asia and North Africa. It includes major artistic movements and periods, national and regional art, genres, revivals, artists’ craftsmanship and the artists themselves. A generally accepted scheme includes the later phases of Early Christian Art, Migration Period Art, Byzantine Art, Insular Art, Pre-Romanesque, Romanesque Art, and Gothic Art, as well as many other periods within these central styles. In addition, each region, mainly during the period in the process of becoming nations or cultures, had its own distinct artistic style, such as Anglo-Saxon art or Viking art.

Medieval art was produced in many media, and works survive in large numbers in sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass, metalwork and mosaics. Medieval art in Europe grew out of the artistic heritage of the Roman Empire and the iconographic traditions of the early Christian Church. These sources mingled with the vigorous “barbarian” artistic culture of northern Europe to produce a remarkable artistic legacy.Technically speaking, medieval artists made many mistakes in the way they rendered perspective, tones and colors but this lack of precision allowed the arrival of the revolutionary perfectionism of the Renaissance or even more recently of the astonishing details of the movement of photorealism.

4. The Renaissance (1400-1600)


The Renaissance style of painting, sculpture and decorative art is characterized by an emphasis on nature and individualism, the thought of man as independent and autonomous. Although these ideals were present in the late medieval period, they flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries, alongside economic changes like secularization.

The Renaissance reached its height in Florence, Italy, thanks in large part to the Medici, a wealthy merchant family who staunchly supported the arts and humanism, a variety of beliefs and philosophies that emphasized the human . Italian artists like Filippo Brunelleschi or Donatello were key innovators during this period. Here are some of the techniques that were used during the Renaissance and are still used today by traditional and even digital modern painters:

The use of proportion. True linear perspective was formalized later, by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. As well as giving a more realistic presentation of art, it prompted Renaissance painters to compose more paintings.

Another technique was shortening. The term foreshortening refers to the artistic effect of shortening the lines of a drawing in order to create an illusion of perspective.

The Sfumato was also a great invention of the Renaissance. The term sfumato was coined by Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci and refers to a painting technique of blurring or softening sharp outlines by a subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another through the use of thin glazes to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. It comes from the Italian word sfumare which means to evaporate or disappear. The Latin origin is fumare, to smoke. 

Finally, the chiaroscuro technique. The term chiaroscuro refers to the modeling effect of painting of using strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. It comes from the Italian words meaning light (chiaro) and dark (scuro), a technique that became widespread during the Baroque era.

5. Mannerism (1527-1580)

Image 2Giuseppe-Arcimboldo-Reversible-Head-with-Basket-of-Fruit-Ben-Heine-Blog-1-1024x433_12_11zon

Mannerism includes a variety of approaches influenced by the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasized proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerated these qualities, often resulting in asymmetrical or abnormally elegant compositions. Notable for its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities, this artistic style favors the tension and instability of composition over the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its highly flowery style and intellectual sophistication. The definition of Mannerism and its phases continue to be a subject of debate among art historians.

The word Mannerism comes from an Italian word Maniera which means “Manner” or “Style”. But many art historians have different views on the word Mannerism, but many still recognize and identify it with 16th century European culture.

The term is also used to refer to certain late Gothic painters working in northern Europe between around 1500 and 1530, in particular the Antwerp Mannerists, a group unrelated to the Italian movement. Mannerism was also applied by analogy to the Silver Age of Latin literature.

6. Baroque (1600-1750)


The term baroque, derived from the Portuguese ‘barocco’ which means ‘pearl or irregular stone’, is an artistic and architectural movement developed in Europe from the 17th to the middle of the 18th century. Baroque emphasizes dramatic, exaggerated movement and clear, easy-to-interpret detail, a far cry from surrealism, to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur.

The Baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, deep color, grandeur and surprise to create a sense of awe. The style began in the early 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria, southern Germany and Russia. By the 1730s it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style, called rocaille or rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the middle or late 18th century. In the decorative arts, the style employs a abundant and complex ornamentation. A general feature is the ornamental elements introduced by the Renaissance. The classical repertoire is cluttered, dense, intertwined, loaded, in order to cause shock effects.

Like other artistic periods, Baroque art slowly declined and many other art styles emerged and replaced it. Even though other artistic styles have appeared, Baroque art has influenced post-modern art, modern graphic design and modern interior design. Post-modern art is influenced by Baroque art because it represents the rejection of new modern art. Baroque art offers artists an escape from the dominant art movement. Baroque art is very extravagant and powerful, which gives the contemporary artist more freedom to create and imagine figures, ideas and scenes.

7. Neoclassicism (1750-1850)


Neoclassicism establishes principles incorporated in the styles, theories or philosophies of the different types of art of ancient Greece and Rome, focusing on traditional forms with an emphasis on elegance and symmetry . In the early and mid-18th century, Baroque art gave way to the decadent and whimsical Rococo. Later, around 1780, this frivolous style was replaced by the next great revival of classical art, known as Neoclassicism. Defended by the scholar Johann Winckelmann (1717-68), this new style is illustrated by the neoclassical painting of Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825); the photos of his disciple JAD Ingres (1780-1867); neoclassical sculpture by Antonio Canova (1757-1822); and the architecture of designers like Jacques Soufflot (1713-80),

8. Romanticism (1780-1850)


Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most regions was at its height in the period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as the glorification of the past and nature, preferring the medieval over the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature.

Among the characteristic attitudes of Romanticism were the following: a deep appreciation of the beauties of nature; a general exaltation of emotion over reason and of the senses over the intellect; a withdrawal into oneself and an in-depth examination of the human personality, its moods and its psychological potentialities; a concern for the genius, the hero the exceptional and a focus on his passions and inner struggles; a new vision of the artist as a supremely individual creator, whose creative spirit is more important than strict adherence to formal rules and traditional procedures. In this movement, the emphasis is on the imagination as a gateway to transcendental experiences and spiritual truth; an obsessive interest in popular culture, national and ethnic cultural origins, and the medieval era; and finally a predilection for the exotic, the distant, the mysterious, the strange, the occult, the monstrous and even the satanic.

The individual was valued, but it was also felt that people had an obligation to their fellow man, so personal commitment to the group was important.

Today, romance can be found in a wide range of films, television, literature, music, and art. Whether it’s an emphasis on the eternal power of nature or a visceral audience reaction to a work, contemporary society is full of romanticism. Our cultural focus on individualism, freedom and the desire to protect nature as well as fantasies about historical periods come from romanticism!

Romanticism has influenced recent political ideologies, inviting for example to commit to the cause of the poor and the oppressed and with ideals of social emancipation and progress. 

9. Realism (1848-1900)


Realism is a genre of art that began in France after the French Revolution of 1848. Clearly rejecting romanticism, the dominant style that had preceded it, realist painters focused on scenes of contemporary people and life daily. What may seem normal now was revolutionary after centuries of painting depicting exotic scenes from mythology and the Bible, or creating portraits of nobility and clergy. Realism is the result of multiple events: the anti-romantic movement in Germany, the rise of journalism and the advent of photography. One of the most influential leaders of the realist movement was Gustave Courbet, a French artist committed to painting only what he could physically see.

10. Impressionism (1865-1895)


Impressionism was a radical art movement that began in the late 1800s, centered primarily around Parisian painters. The Impressionists rebelled against classical subjects and embraced modernity, eager to create works that reflected the world in which they lived. Bringing them together was a focus on how light could define a moment in time, with color providing definition instead of black lines. The Impressionists emphasized the practice of plein air painting, or painting outdoors. Initially derided by critics, Impressionism has since been embraced as one of the most popular and influential art styles in Western history.

Impressionism was considered the very first form of modern painting. It started in France as a formal art which later spread to other parts of the world. He relies on the presence of light and brushstrokes to show the nature of a subject. Evident between the 1860s and 1870s. It was associated with fast and suspended sketching sensations. Impressionists could center their works on the modern world. They depended on what had happened rather than historical or religious issues. A French artist named Claude Monet popularized Impressionism.

He was particularly interested in the passage of time in his depiction of light. His series of paintings capturing Rouen Cathedral at different times of the year and day offer clear examples of his ideas of how a subject can be transformed by the properties that surround it. His most famous painting in this series is Rouen Cathedral from 1894: The Facade at Sunset. Monet extended his Impressionist practice throughout his life, culminating in his multiple studies of the lily pond, made from 1898 to 1926, the last works of which in the series (made just before his death) achieve an almost abstract quality. .

Post-Impressionism was rather a reaction against Impressionism, which he considered too stifling. The Post-Impressionists chose to depict not just the tangible, taking a more symbolic and emotive approach to their subject matter, particularly in the use of color, which was not necessary to express realism. In post-impressionism, works of art placed more emphasis on colors and less on light.

11. Pointillism (1880-1891)


Also known as “point art”, Pointillism is a painting technique pioneered by French artists Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. The duo moved away from their impressionist friends to turn their small dabs of paint and strokes into distinct dots of color that, when applied en masse, form cohesive, detailed and dimensional images (much like our modern pixels , If you want).

Pointillism involved the application of paint in carefully placed dots of pure, unmixed color. According to Seurat and Signac, these would be blended by the viewer’s eye to create a more striking image than a work whose colors have been conventionally blended on a palette.

Vincent van Gogh, who knew Seurat and Signac during his stay in Paris from 1886 to 1888, had a brief association with Pointillism. Admittedly, some of his paintings from this Parisian period – such as the 1887 Self-Portrait – show traces of this influence. (After a visit to Seurat’s studio one day, he claimed to have experienced a “revelation in color”.) It is generally agreed, however, that van Gogh was too restless a spirit for such a technical style as pointillism. .

Pointillism had a big impact on later art movements which also gave their names after forms used in the art movement such as Cubism or Digital Circlism.

12. Symbolism (1880-1910)


Symbolism was a late 19th century artistic movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin finding its birth in poetry and other arts seeking to symbolically represent absolute truths through metaphorical imagery and language primarily in reaction against naturalism and realism. In literature, the style originated with the publication in 1857 of Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, whom Baudelaire greatly admired and translated into French, were a significant influence. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic revolved around a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers.

As an art form and a means of transmitting philosophical statements, symbolism has had a great influence in culture. There are literally thousands of conscious and unconscious symbols used by everyone every day; our knowledge of these symbols and their origins is limited only by our desire to understand where they come from. For example, many symbols used in the United States government are derived from Masonic symbolism. The pyramid and the all-seeing eye on paper money is a good example; nowhere in the mythology of the United States is there a pyramid, nor an eye other than that of God. In fact, the pyramid is meant to symbolize power and strength, as Charles Thomson, the designer, explicitly stated.

Finally, a good example of symbolism in the modern world is the ubiquity of trademarks, the insignia that instantly identify people, places, and things. Since the badge is intended to fully represent its owner – the “Golden Arches” stands for MacDonald’s, the “Swoosh” stands for Nike – we are trained to recognize all aspects of the owner in the identifying mark.

13. Art Nouveau (1890-1910)


It is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, known in different languages ​​by different names: Jugendstil in German, Stile Liberty in Italian, Modernisme català in Catalan, etc. . In English it is also known as Modern Style. The style was most popular between 1890 and 1910. It was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. He is often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or lashes, and use of modern materials, especially iron, glass, ceramics and more later the concrete, to create unusual shapes and larger open spaces. lashes and the use of modern materials, especially iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual shapes and larger open spaces. One of the major aims of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between the fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and the applied arts. It has been most widely used in interior design, graphic arts, furniture, glass art, textiles, ceramics, jewelry, and metal work. to create unusual shapes and larger open spaces. One of the major aims of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between the fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and the applied arts. It has been most widely used in interior design, graphic arts, furniture, glass art, textiles, ceramics, jewelry, and metal work. to create unusual shapes and larger open spaces. One of the major aims of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between the fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and the applied arts. It has been most widely used in interior design, graphic arts, furniture, glass art, textiles, ceramics, jewelry, and metal work.

From Belgium and France it spread to the rest of Europe, taking on different names and characteristics in each country and it had a notable influence on all subsequent art movements.

14. Fauvism (1905-1910)


It was the first project of its kind to succeed and prosper in the 20th century. Henry Matisse, who designed the project, added a bit of emotion to his paintings. He added brushstrokes and bright colors to his works which became more appealing to the public. Les Fauves’ paintings were characterized by seemingly wild brushwork and strident colors, while their subject matter exhibited a high degree of simplification and abstraction. Fauvism can be classified as an extreme development of the style of Van Gogh, in a way Post-Impressionism fused with the Pointillism of Seurat and other Neo-Impressionist painters, in particular Paul Signac. Other key influences were Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin, whose use of areas of saturated color, especially in paintings from Tahiti,

15. Expressionism (1905-1925)


Expressionism is seen more as an international trend than a cohesive art movement, particularly influential at the start of the twentieth century. It covered various fields: art, literature, music, theater and architecture. Expressionist artists sought to express emotional experience rather than physical reality. Famous expressionist paintings are The Scream by Edvard Munch, Der Blaue Reiter by Wassily Kandinsky, and Seated Woman with Raised Legs by Egon Schiele. Expressionism is a complex and broad term that has meant different things at different times.

People, places and objects are distorted or exaggerated. Even nature is sometimes distorted. The scenes show a hostile and alienating modern world. The sinister feel is amplified by aggressive, raw brushstrokes.

German Expressionism was one of many creative movements in Germany before World War I, influencing architecture, painting, printing, and film. Expressionist films often used wildly unrealistic and geometrically absurd sets with painted designs on the walls and floors to represent lights and shadows. The plots of these films often dealt with madness, madness, and betrayal as well as other topics considered intellectual (as opposed to the non-intellectual topics of action and romance). The influence of German Expressionism is also found in American cinema. Many German directors fled to America to escape the Nazis during World War II and found their way to Hollywood. Here, 

In modern film culture, German Expressionism is clearly visible in the work of writer/director Tim Burton, known for his crazy, eccentric and bizarre films. Batman Returns is cited as a modern attempt to capture the essence of German Expressionism. You can see it for yourself by clicking here. As you watch, be very careful with the use of light, but also keep an eye out for some totally unrealistic costumes and sets! German Expressionism can also be seen in Burton’s 1990 film Edward Scissorhands, where Johnny Depp’s character resembles Cesare’s long-lost twin from Dr. Caligari. In his 1993 animated feature The Nightmare Before Christmas,

16. Cubism (1908-1920)


Cubism is an early 20th century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture and inspired related movements in music, literature, and architecture. In Cubist art, objects are analyzed, broken down and reassembled in an abstract form, instead of representing the objects from a single point of view, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of points of view. view to represent the subject in a larger context. Cubism is simply considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century.

In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract Art, and later Purism. The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and far-reaching. In France and other countries, Futurism, Suprematism, Dadaism, Constructivism, Vorticism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings have in common with Cubism the fusion of past and present, the depiction of different views of the subject photographed at the same time, also called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by the technique of construction of Picasso’s sculpture from separate elements. Other commonalities between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric shapes and the association of mechanization and modern life. The influence of cubism extended to other artistic fields, apart from painting and sculpture. In literature, the written works of Gertrude Stein employ repetitions and repetitive phrases as building blocks both within passages and entire chapters. Most of Stein’s major works use this technique, including the novel The Making of Americans (1906-1908). Not only were they important early patrons of Cubism, but Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo were also important influences on Cubism. Picasso in turn had an important influence on Stein’s writing.

In the realm of American fiction, William Faulkner’s 1930 novel As I Lay Dying can be read as an interaction with the Cubist mode. The novel presents accounts of the various experiences of 15 characters who, taken together, produce a single cohesive body. Poets generally associated with Cubism are Guillaume Apollinaire, Blaise Cendrars, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob, André Salmon and Pierre Reverdy. As the American poet Kenneth Rexroth explains, Cubism in poetry “is the conscious and deliberate dissociation and recombination of elements into a new artistic entity made autonomous by its rigorous architecture.

17. Constructivism (1914-1930)


Developed by the Russian avant-garde around 1914, Constructivism is a branch of abstract art, rejecting the idea of ​​”art for art’s sake” in favor of art as an end-oriented practice. social. Movement work was mostly geometric and composed with precision, sometimes using math and measuring tools.

18. Futurism (1909-1918)


It was a controversial movement that at one point tried to compare human beings to machining. His main goal was to embrace speed and innovation in society. In this movement, Filippo Marinetti proposed a manifesto without limitation to art. There were architects, painters and writers. Paintings drawn at this time depicted automobiles, trains, and animals.

19. Suprematism (1913-1918)


Suprematism is an art movement focused on basic geometric shapes, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors. It was founded by Kazimir Malevich in Russia and announced at Malevich’s last futuristic exhibition of 0.10 paintings in 1915 in St. Petersburg where he, along with 13 other artists, exhibited 36 works in a similar style. The term suprematism refers to an abstract art based on “the supremacy of pure artistic feeling” rather than the visual representation of objects.

The first hints of this emerged in the background and costume sketches that Kazimir Malevich designed in 1913 for Victory Over the Sun, a futuristic opera performed in St. Petersburg. While the designs still have a clear relationship to Cubo-Futurism (a Russian art movement in which Malevich was heavily involved), the simple shapes that provide a visual basis for Suprematism appear repeatedly.

20. Dadaism (1916-1924)


During the First World War, countless artists, writers and intellectuals opposed to the war took refuge in Switzerland. Zurich, in particular, was a hub for people in exile, and it was here that Hugo Ball and Emmy Hemmings opened the Cabaret Voltaire on February 5, 1916. The Cabaret was a meeting place for artists before – keep the most radical. Halfway between a nightclub and an artistic center, artists could exhibit their work there, between poetry, music and avant-garde dance. Hans (Jean) Arp, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco and Richard Huelsenbeck were among the early contributors to Cabaret Voltaire. As the war raged, their art and performance became increasingly experimental, dissenting, and anarchic. Together,

21. Surrealism (1917-1950)

Image 2Saalvador-Dali-Surrealism-Ben-Heine-Blog.jpeg_34_11zon

Surrealism was a cultural movement that developed in Europe following World War I and was largely influenced by Dada. The movement is best known for its visual and written works of art and the juxtaposition of distant realities to activate the unconscious through imagery. Artists painted disturbing and illogical scenes, sometimes with photographic precision, creating strange creatures from everyday objects and developing painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself. Its aim was, according to leader André Breton, to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality”, or surreality.

The works of Surrealism provoke surprise, the unexpected, juxtaposition and non sequitur. However, many surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost (for example, of the “pure psychic automatism” of which Breton speaks in the first Surrealist Manifesto), the works themselves being secondary, that is to say surreal experiments. The Breton leader was explicit in his assertion that surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. At the time, the movement was associated with political causes such as communism and anarchism.

The artistic movement of Surrealism had a great impact in the history of art, literature, culture and even extended to politics. Surrealism is a creative act of striving towards the liberation of the imagination. It’s as dynamic as it is subtle; Surrealism is still alive and growing until today. Many artists around the world are influenced by the styles, ideas and techniques of Surrealism. Surrealism taught the world to see art not only visually and literally; but also to appreciate it on a subconscious level. Today, surrealism is a familiar art form that continues to grow globally. It is easy for artists to show their creativity through surrealism, because the style gives them more freedom to express their feelings and thoughts through the canvas. Surreal art can be dreamy, gritty, sad, optimistic, or joyful.

22. Kinetic Art (1920-1960)


Kinetic art derives from the Greek word “kinesis”, which means “movement”. Therefore, kinetic art refers to art forms that contain movement. Generally speaking, kinetic artworks are most often three-dimensional sculptures that move naturally (e.g. powered by the wind) or are operated by a machine or by the user. The seemingly contemporary art movement actually has its roots in Impressionism, when artists began trying to express movement in their art. In the early 1900s, artists began to experiment more with moving art, with sculptural machines and mobiles advancing kinetic art. Russian artists Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko were the first creators of sculptural mobiles, something that would later be perfected by Alexander Calder. In contemporary terms, kinetic art encompasses sculptures and installations that have movement as a primary consideration. Kinetic art is an art movement that features works that contain moving parts. The movement can be produced by the wind, the sun, a motor or the spectator. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles. Kinetic art is an art movement that features works that contain moving parts. The movement can be produced by the wind, the sun, a motor or the spectator. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles. Kinetic art is an art movement that features works that contain moving parts. The movement can be produced by the wind, the sun, a motor or the spectator. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles.

23. Abstract Expressionism (1940s-1950s)


Abstract Expressionism is a post-World War II artistic movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to gain international influence and place New York at the center of the world of Western art, a role formerly occupied by Paris. Although the term “abstract expressionism” was first applied to American art in 1946 by art critic Robert Coates, it was first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, in About German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky.

24. Art Deco (1920-1935)


Emerging from Art Nouveau in the 1920s, the Art Deco movement attempted to embellish mass-produced functional constructions such as clocks, cars, and buildings. It reached the height of its popularity between the two world wars and sought to represent luxury, glamour, and technological and social progress.

25. Pop Art (1950-1960)


Pop Art was a major art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States in the mid to late 1950s. The movement arose as a challenge to bourgeois fine art traditions by including images from popular culture and mass media, such as advertising, comics, and mass-produced mundane objects. One of his goals is to use images from popular (as opposed to elitist) culture in art, emphasizing the mundane or kitschy elements of any culture, most often through the use of irony. It is also associated with the use by artists of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In Pop Art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated or combined with unrelated material. One of its greatest exponents is Andy Warhol. Pop Art is still present in industrial art today and also in Street Art.

26. Photorealism (1960-Today)


Photorealism is a style of visual art that is all about the technical ability to wow viewers. Primarily an American art movement, it gained momentum in the late 1960s and 1970s as a reaction against Abstract Expressionism. Here the artists were most concerned with painting and reproducing a photograph to the best of their ability, carefully planning their work for great effect and avoiding the spontaneity that is the hallmark of Abstract Expressionism. Similar to Pop Art, Photorealism often focuses on imagery related to consumer culture.

The word Photorealism was coined by Louis K. Meisel in 1969 and first appeared in print in 1970 in a Whitney Museum catalog for the “Twenty-two Realists” exhibit. It is also sometimes labeled as Super-Realism, New Realism, Sharp Focus Realism, or Hyper-Realism.

Louis K. Meisel, two years later, developed a five-point definition at the request of Stuart M. Speiser, who had commissioned a large collection of Photorealist work, which later developed into a traveling exhibition known as the name ‘Photo-Realism 1973′: The Stuart M. Speiser Collection’, which was donated to the Smithsonian in 1978 and which is displayed in many of its museums as well as traveling under the auspices of ‘site’. Photorealistic painting cannot exist without photography. In Photorealism, change and movement must be frozen in time which must then be accurately depicted by the artist.

Photorealists bring together their images and information with the camera and photography. Once the photograph is developed (usually on a photographic slide), the artist will systematically transfer the image from the photographic slide onto canvases. Usually this is done either by projecting the slide onto the canvas or using traditional grid techniques.

Ultimately, as with many things in art and in life in general, the final conclusion is up to individual interpretation. The answer lies in the eye of the beholder, whether you find the artistic tension in it or simply admire it for its skill, Photorealism is remarkable and amazing in itself.

27. Installation (1960-Today)


Installation is a movement in art, developed at the same time as Pop Art in the late 1950s, which is characterized by large-scale and mixed-media constructions, often designed for a specific location or for a temporary period. Often, Installation art involves the creation of an enveloping aesthetic or sensory experience within a particular environment, often inviting the active engagement or immersion of the viewer.

Installation art can be temporary or permanent. Installation artworks have been constructed in exhibition spaces such as museums and galleries, as well as in public and private spaces. The genre incorporates a wide range of everyday and natural materials, which are often chosen for their “evocative” qualities, as well as new media such as video, sound, performance, immersive virtual reality and the internet. Many installations are site-specific in that they are designed to exist only in the space for which they were created, appealing to the obvious qualities of an immersive three-dimensional medium. It is a very popular movement in the 21st century.

28. Conceptual Art (1960-Today)


Conceptual Art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, was one of many 20th century art movements that emerged in the 1960s, emphasizing theoretical ideas and practices rather than the creation of visual forms. The term was coined in 1967 by artist Sol LeWitt, who gave the new genre its name in his essay “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art”, in which he wrote: “The idea itself, even if it doesn’t is not rendered visual, is as much a work of art as any finished product.

Conceptual Art is an artistic movement based on the idea that the idea or concept is the essence of art. Art doesn’t even have to take physical form. It can be something the artist says or does or a document of the artist’s thought. As Sol LeWitt says, “the idea itself is a work of art”. So when looking at concept art instead of focusing on how the art looks, you should focus on the thought process of the artist and the idea behind it. Conceptual Art, also referred to as Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns.

Some Conceptual Art works, sometimes called Installations, can be built by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions. This method was fundamental to American artist Sol LeWitt’s definition of conceptual art, one of the first to appear on paper. In conceptual art, the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a concept art form, it means that all the planning and decisions are made in advance and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes art.

29. Minimalism (1960-Today)


Minimalist Art eschewed artistic expression, preferring to keep things literal (as one of the founders of Minimalism, painter Frank Stella, said of the movement: “What you see is what you see “). Extreme simplicity was the key to this movement, where medium and materials stole the show from the artists behind them. Appearing in New York in the early 1960s (and also known as ABC art, Literalism, Literal art, Reductivism and Rejective art), Minimalism was characterized by scarcity. It is a predominantly American movement in visual arts and music originating in New York in the late 1960s and characterized by extreme simplicity of form and a literal, objective approach. Minimal art, along with the music of Erik Satie and the aesthetics of John Cage, had a distinct influence on minimalist music. Reacting against the complex and intellectually sophisticated style of modern music, several composers began to compose in a simple and literal style, creating music that was extremely simple and accessible.

In both music and the visual arts, Minimalism was an attempt to explore the essential elements of an art form. In minimalist visual arts, personal and gestural elements have been removed in order to reveal the objective and purely visual elements of painting and sculpture.

30. The Performance (1960-Today)


Performance art is a term that emerged in the 1960s to describe different types of works created by actions performed by the artist or other participants, which may be live or recorded, spontaneous or scripted. The performance challenges the conventions of traditional visual art forms such as painting and sculpture by embracing a variety of styles such as events, body art, body painting, actions and happenings.

31. Land Art (1965-Today)


Land Art, known as earth art, environmental art, and terracing, is an art movement that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, widely associated with Britain and the United States. but it also includes examples from many countries. As a trend, “Land Art” has expanded the boundaries of art through the materials used and the location of works. Materials used were often Earth materials, including soil, rocks, vegetation, and water found on site, and work sites were often far from population centers. Although sometimes quite inaccessible, the photographic documentation was generally brought to the urban art gallery. Land Art, a term coined by artist Robert Smithson,

However, this art form has been around for thousands of years. Land Art is a work of art created with and embodied by the physical landscape. The movement sought to take art out of museums and place it in a natural context. Many works of Land Art are temporary or left to change with the elements of nature. The best-known work of contemporary Land Art is Spiral Jetty (1970) which Smithson created as a ledge in Utah’s Great Salt Lake.

The essential characteristic of Land Art is the inseparable link between the work of art and the landscape in which it is placed. Land Art is often made of materials such as stone, bedrock, water, branches, and other natural elements, but concrete, metal, and pigments are also often used. Initially, Land Art became popular in the American Southwest, but these works now exist only as photographs or recordings. The artists of these works began to create Land Art as a way to condemn the artificiality of the commercialized art that was popular in their time. The first work called Land Art was created at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture by artists Douglas Leichter and Richard SabaL

32. Digital Circlism (2010-2020)


Through the use of graphics software and a lot of creativity, Ben Heine, the inventor of Digital Circlism, recreates iconic faces from history and pop culture with flat circles of different sizes and colors, in order to give a dynamic and three-dimensional appearance. Heine defines it as a synthesis of Pop Art (art including images from popular culture) and Pointillism (a painting technique that uses small, distinct dots of pure color). In this series, Heine develops a digital and modern version of pointillism by making “dots” into real recognizable circles with which he creates portraits of world stars. Heine’s circle technique adds symbolic meaning to the subjects depicted. “These portraits are as striking as Alberto Korda’s iconic photo of Che, but suddenly reimagined to be projected endlessly into digital spaces. This movement is also reminiscent of stained glass. Each portrait requires between 100 and 180 hours of work to complete. The artist explained his workflow in an interview for Adobe Photoshop.

33. Pencil Vs Camera (2010-2021)


Pencil Vs Camera is an original visual concept invented and popularized by Ben Heine since April 2010. It is one of the most creative and powerful concept art of the 21st century. Images in this series typically show a hand-drawn sketch held and photographed by the artist to infuse ordinary scenes with new surreal, visionary, or fictionalized narratives. The idea is reminiscent of augmented reality.

Ben’s visible hand represents the connection between the viewer, the artist and the artwork. Heine does not recreate the photographs, but he reimagines them. In these images, he tells a story and conveys timeless messages using imagination, illusion, poetry and surrealism. Her work is fueled by fearless positivity. An already beautiful photo is enhanced with a sketch that adds a touch of satire and fantasy.

Starting from simple sketches, Ben brought major innovations to the concept in 2012 and 2013, adding colors and black paper or increasing the size of the drawings. Heine’s first Pencil Vs Camera images quickly gained popularity and received positive reviews from art magazines. Since 2012, many smartphone apps emulate the style of Heine’s Pencil Vs Camera. Several other artists also borrowed from Heine’s innovations to create variations of his Pencil Vs Camera. 

The concept became a real artistic movement when hundreds of thousands of young people tried it around the world. The concept has also become popular in many primary and secondary schools around the world. It is used to stimulate students’ imagination and encourage them to use new technologies and share their ideas.